2.) Understand the University of Florida/Urban Meyer Running Game
The Urban Meyer/University of Florida Running Game can be broken down into a few key plays, these few plays can be disguised by the use of various personnel and formations, but at its core Urban Meyer's running game can be described with the following concepts:
- The Zone Read
- The Counter
- The Trap
- Quarterback Power
- Variants of the Option
Below I will break down these concepts, but with a specific emphasis on how they compare to the same concepts as they are used in most NFL Offenses.
*Unfourtantely, this article got so long that I was only able to cover the Zone Read. The next few articles should be shorter I am hoping to get the counter, trap, and quarterback power all in the next article. Thanks for your patience.*
1.) The Zone Read, Comparing the Inside and Outside Zone to the Inside and Outside Zone Read
A.) Understanding the Zone Read The Zone Read is the bread-and-butter of the University of Florida's Offense along with many other successful College Programs like Oregon and Michigan. The reason this play is so successful is that like the option the Zone Read makes the offense "always right". This is obviously a good thing for the offense. Here is a diagram of the Zone Read as it is run in the most traditional way:
The Zone Read is typically run out of the shotgun with one tailback in the backfield. Sometimes their are more than two tailbacks in the backfield and other times a player will be motioned into the backfield right before the snap to act as a tailback (this was often Percy Harvin's role). The tailback will eventually cross the quarterback so he will line up next to the quarterback on the side that will eventually be the backside of the play. As soon as the ball is hike the offensive line will block just as they would for the Inside or Outside Zone play as it is run by most NFL Teams. The offensive line will block towards the playside and leave the backside defensive end "E" free.
This defensive end becomes the key to the play. The quarterback will take the ball at the snap right as the tailback runs across him, but will not immediately hand him the ball this is the "mesh point". It is at this point that the quarterback must use the defensive end to make a decision. If the defensive end "crashes down" or runs straight at the tailback then the quarterback keeps the ball and runs right past the defensive end for an easy gain. If the defensive end "stays home" or goes outside then the quarterback simply hands the ball off to the tailback. This is a very simple read, the quarterback simply looks at the defensive end's shoulders. If the defensive end's shoulders stay parallel to the offensive line then the quarterback hands off the ball, if the defensive end's shoulders turn inside or perpendicular to the offensive line then the quarterback keeps the ball. This read is what makes or breaks the play, not the speed of the quarterback or the tailback. Therefore, having a smart quarterback who has made this read 1,000 times is more important than having an amazing athlete. Below is a video that very clearly explains the Zone Read:
The Zone-Read Play (via sullivti)
Because of how popular this play has become defensive coordinators have come up with a simple way to defend it called a "scrape exchange". In this case the defensive end will always "crash down" on the tailback and the outside linebacker always shoots outside to cover the quarterback. If the quarterback does not expect this he will hand the ball of to the tailback when he sees the defensive end turn his shoulders and then the quarterback will get destroyed by the waiting outside linebacker. Below is a diagram courtesy of Chris Brown at Smart Football:
Now if the offense knows this is coming they can just block the defensive end and run the Zone Read with the linebacker as the key instead of the defensive end, but it is very difficult for the offense to know this ahead of time. Further, if the linebacker is an excellent athlete as is common in the NFL he can just wait for the quarterback to make his read then use his speed to close on the play often leading to a loss. Yet, the "scrape exchange" has not ended the Zone Read. This can be attributed to a few of the changes that have been made to the Zone Read, I will describe the three most common below.
The Zone Read where the defensive end is read is the simplest form that of the play that there is and as I said above can be stopped by the "scrape exchange". Perhaps the newest and most interesting variant of the Zone Read that prevents the "scrape exchange" is a solution was developed by Oregon's Chip Kelley this past season. In this case the quarterback keys the defensive tackle (more specifically the 3 Technique) rather than the defensive end. Here is a diagram courtesy of Chris Brown at Smart Football:
Again the offensive line blocks as they would for an Inside Zone play except they let the defensive tackle through. Again the quarterback will take the ball at the snap right as the tailback runs across him, but will not immediately hand him the ball. At the "mesh point" the quarterback will read the defensive tackle's shoulders. If the defensive tackle's shoulders stay parallel to the offensive line then the quarterback hands off the ball, if the defensive tackle's shoulders turn inside or perpendicular to the offensive line then the quarterback keeps the ball. This play puts defensive tackles in a situation that they are not used to where they need to properly read and execute rather than just rush the passer or clog a gap. Most defensive tackles also lack the speed of defensive ends to allow them to even try to recover if they make the wrong read. Also, if the linebacker is shooting outside in a "scrape exchange" he is just taking himself right out of the play. Here is a video of this play courtesy of Buckeye Football Analysis:
Ore Read 1 Tech.avi (via rfulton5512)
In some cases the slot receiver will be put into motion behind the quarterback so the play can become a triple option. See the image below from Dawgs by Nature:
The quarterback will make the same read at the "mesh point" as he does during the typical Zone Read. This the first option, as in a typical Zone Read the quarterback will read the defensive end. If the defensive end's shoulders stay parallel to the offensive line then the quarterback hands off the ball, if the defensive end's shoulders turn inside or perpendicular to the offensive line then the quarterback keeps the ball. If the quarterback sees the defensive end keep his shoulder's parallel to the offensive line then the will hand it off to the tailback and the play evolves just as the typical Zone Read would, but if the quarterback reads that the defensive end has turned his shoulders the quarterback keeps the ball and attacks the outside linebacker (highlighted in purple) and reads him as well. This is the second and third option. The quarterback can make a basic read on the outside linebacker. If the outside linebacker chooses to tackle the quarterback he will pitch the ball to the motioned receiver and if the outside linebacker chooses to tackle the slot receiver the quarterback will keep the ball. The "scrape exchange" does not help defend this play at all as the outside linebacker still has to defend the option threat by the quarterback and the receiver. Below is video of Tim Tebow running this play:
Option Right (via Year2Wordpress)
The last addition to the Zone Read is the bubble screen. Just as with the Triple Option variant of the Zone Read a receiver becomes an important part of the play. See the image below again from Dawgs By Nature:
The quarterback will make the same read at the "mesh point" as he does during the typical Zone Read and the Zone Read Triple Option. If the defensive end's shoulders stay parallel to the offensive line then the quarterback hands off the ball, if the defensive end's shoulders turn inside or perpendicular to the offensive line then the quarterback keeps the ball. If the quarterback sees the defensive end keep his shoulder's parallel to the offensive line then the will hand it off to the tailback and the play evolves just as the typical Zone Read would, but if the quarterback reads that the defensive end has turned his shoulders the quarterback keeps the ball and attacks the outside linebacker (highlighted in purple) and reads him as well.
While the quarterback was reading the defensive end the A receiver sneaked out into the flats behind the X receiver. This time when the quarterback reads the outside linebacker he again waits to see if he will come after him. If the outside linebacker closes on the quarterback the quarterback throws the ball out to the A receiver for a good gain, but if the outside linebacker stays outside with the receiver then the quarterback simply runs upfield. The "scrape exchange" does not help defend this play at all as the outside linebacker still has to choose between covering the screen pass or the quarterback run. Here is video of Oregon running the bubble screen, thanks to jtthirtyfour at Bruins Nation:
zone read with bubble (via jtthirtyfour)
B.) How the Zone Read Relates to the NFL
Now obviously we don't see very many Triple Option plays or plays where the quarterback takes off running in the NFL so how does this relate? The Zone Read is the same as the Inside and Outside Zone in the most important way, blocking. The quaterback read can be taught pretty quickly, it is often the blocking that takes a long time to teach and perfect. After all the choice in the Zone Read is just decoration really. The backside defensive end is often left unblocked in the NFL during zone running plays, the quarterback even rolls out with the ball occasionally (this was a key part of Mike Shannahan's Denver Bronco offense). The quarterback keeping the ball is rare in the NFL, but still does happen occasionally. The only difference between the Zone Read at the college level and the Inside and Outside Zone at the NFL level is that at the NFL level the quarterback does not choose when to keep the ball.
Let's go over the Inside and Outside Zone runs in the NFL.
Perhaps the two most common running plays in the NFL right now are the Inside and Outside Zone runs. To understand how these plays work it is necessary to first understand how zone blocking works. The fundamentals of zone blocking are not very complex, however since these two plays (inside and outside zone runs) are used so commonly there are literally entire books dedicated to how to properly zone block. I will give a simple explanation of zone blocking and leave any further research up to you.
Zone blocking can most simply be described by saying that an offensive line is responsible for a specific zone instead of a specific man (as he would be in a man blocking scheme). The offensive lineman is told that he must read covered or uncovered. This means is there a defender directly over him (covered) or is there no one directly over him(uncovered).
If the offensive lineman is covered than there is no zone blocking. Instead the offensive lineman simply blocks the man directly over him as he would during any other running play with one simple difference; the covered offensive lineman takes a short and quick step sideways. This quick sidestep allows the offensive lineman to block the defender from any angle and puts the defender in a position where he can be blocked out of the play due to the advantage in leverage the offensive lineman has.
When the offensive lineman reads uncovered then zone blocking is implemented. The uncovered offensive lineman will first block "playside" and help the covered offensive lineman with his blocking assignment. For instance against a typical 3-4 defense the center will read "covered" because of the nose tackle lined up directly over him, but the left guard will read "uncovered" because the right defensive end is most likely aligned over the left tackle. This would mean that the left guard initially would help the center double team the nose tackle. The "uncovered" offensive lineman will drive toward the defender’s inside leg initially (this is the defender who is covering the "playside" offensive lineman). Once the offensive lineman has reached where the defender’s inside leg initially was he will then either continue his double team of the defender or, in most cases, head up field to block a linebacker. This should take only two steps, one to reach the back leg and one to continue the double team or head upfield. The offensive lineman will help with the double team as long as possible before attempting to head up field to block a linebacker.
Below is a video of this being run to perfection by the Detroit Lions.
Zone Blocking with Double Teams (via mscantleburytube)
The majority of the time in a zone blocking scheme the tailback will follow the design of the play, but occasionally the tailback will perform a cutback and change direction during the run. A cutback is when the tailback changes direction and runs away from where the linebackers are flowing (the tailback can only do this once and must not hesitate). This cutback made by the tailback is what makes zone blocking so dangerous because of how easily a cutback can lead to a big play. The cutback exaggerates the advantages of the zone blocking scheme. The defenders are forced to change the direction of their pursuit which allows the offensive lineman to block them out of the play. Once the tailback changes direction the offensive linemen will be standing between the defenders and the tailback; the offensive linemen are then creating a wall that leaves a large tunnel or "hole" for the tailback to run through. Further, once the cutback is made the offensive tackle opposite of the direction that the tailback is cutting towards knows that he can leave his defender and head up field, this will allow an offensive tackle to be matched up on an outside linebacker, this is a match up the offense will take all day . The offensive tackle can safely leave the defensive lineman because the defensive lineman whom he was blocking previously is now facing the opposite direction of the play and therefore would have to turn completely around and chase down a much faster tailback to make a play on the run.
The cutback run is particularly effective once the linebackers begin to over pursue the outside run. Once the linebackers begin to sprint towards the sideline they are running away from the direction of the play. This makes them particularly easy for the offensive linemen to block. Most teams will run "stretch" or outside zone plays to get the linebackers flowing towards the sideline in order to better setup the cutback. Essential to making the cutback work is that the tailback aims for where the hole will be and does not hesitate. The cutback hole does not exist when the tailback initially makes his cut because the offensive linemen still need to head up field to block and turn away the linebackers. The tailback needs to trust his blockers to create the hole, he should not be counting on his own athletic ability. This is particularly hard for tailbacks new to a zone blocking scheme because they must see the hole before it exists and have complete trust in their offensive linemen.
Here are some clips of USC running the outside zone run with a great example of a cutback at 1:10.
USC Outside Zone vs Cal 2008 (CGB) (via ieeebear)
Now that we have described the general principles of zone blocking for runs we can cover the two basic zone runs, the inside and outside zone runs. As mentioned above most teams will first establish the outside zone, so that the cutback is more readily available. Therefore I will first explain the outside zone run (watch the video of USC above to see some outside zone runs in action).
The outside zone run, as its name suggests, is a run play where the tailback aims at just outside the tightend or the D gap. The offensive line will read "covered" or "uncovered" and the "uncovered" offensive linemen will initially go for the double team and then head upfield to block a linebacker. The offensive linemen will attempt to get themselves positioned between the defenders and the sideline, to do this they take their intial sidestep towards the sideline. The sidestep forces the defenders to turn towards the sideline or be easily overpowered (if the defender did not turn his side would be facing the offensive linemen and he would just be pushed over). By "turning" the defenders the offensive linemen will seal off a lane to the outside for the tailback. If the blocking is done correctly the offensive linemen should form a wall between the defenders and the sideline which is aimed slightly upfield, by running between this "wall" and the sideline the tailback should be able to run untouched for the first few yards upfield. The defenders attempting to get themselves outside of the offensive linemen, if successful, will allow the offensive linemen to block the defenders towards the sideline opening up a cutback lane for the tailback. In this case the defenders get caught facing the sideline with a defender behind them while the tailback runs in the opposite direction, towards the center of the field. Below is what the outside zone run looks like drawn up on the chalkboard.
via smartfootball.com Thanks to Chris Brown for the image.
Notice in the diagram above that the defensive end "E" on the left is left completely unblocked, just as he is in the Zone Read. If this end is a good athlete he might be able to run down the tailback and stop the play for a loss. To combat this most teams will roll-out their quarterback. This was popularized by the Denver Broncos with athletic quarterbacks like John Elway and Jake Plummer. In this case the quarterback will run towards the opposite side of the play after handing off the ball (he will pretend to have it obviously or he would not be followed by the defensive end). This forces the defensive end to account for him and follow him away from the run. As soon as the defensive end "crashes down" and ignores the quarterback the quarterback will start keeping the ball and will either have an easy run or an easy play action. Below is video of Jake Plummer keeping the ball on a roll-out. Notice how the defender responsible for him "crashes down" quickly to tackle the tailback and does not realize Plummer has the ball until he is only a few yards from the endzone.
jake plummer ownen the chiefs (via limoRb)
After the defense begins to over pursue the outside zone (the play side linebackers almost instantly flow towards the sideline) the coach will typically call the inside zone run. The tailback will now aim straight for the B gap between the guard and the tackle. The same "covered" and "uncovered" rules apply as for the outside zone run, with the same fundamental idea of the "uncovered" offensive lineman aiming for the defender’s back foot and then heading upfield. The offensive linemen really don’t block any differently on an inside zone as opposed to an outside zone run. The offensive linemen will all take their initial sidestep to get a better angle on the defender and then they will all block "playside". Again the offensive line is trying to "turn" the defenders so that they are facing the running lane, but with the offensive line between them and the tailback. The blocking "playside" is even more important during an inside zone run than outside zone run. On an inside zone run the uncovered offensive linemen blocking the linebackers will have a large effect on the play even when there is not a cutback by the tailback, notice in the diagram below that if the linebackers are not blocked that they can stop the play for a minimal gain or a loss. Here is how the inside zone run looks diagramed on the chalkboard.
via smartfootball.com thanks to Chris Brown for the image The tailback also still has the option for the cutback during an inside zone run. If the linebackers all crash down towards the center and the guard then the tailback can decide to cut outside. The video below shows USC running the inside zone and there is a good cutback at 1:40.
USC Inside Zone vs Cal 2008 (CGB) (via ieeebear)